Australia is the fourth largest exporter of wine in the world, with wine regions mainly located in the Southern parts where the climate is cooler such as in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Western Australia, Tasmania and Queensland. The main grape varieties grown are Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, Semillon, Pinot Noir, Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc.
- South Australia: has a vast variety of climate and geography allowing the production of many grape varieties, from Riesling, Semillon and Chardonnay in the Clare Valley to Shiraz and other Rhone varieties in the Barossa Valley.
- Limestone Coast: is located in the South-East and is home to Coonawarra known for its Cabernet Sauvignon production.
- South East Australia: is home to the Hunter Valley where great wines made with Semillon grape are made.
- Victoria: is home to many grape varieties with the most important being Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Sauvignon Blanc. The wines here are more elegant due to the cooler climate and is also recognized for its Madeira like fortified wine (stickies) like Liqueur Muscat.
- Margaret River: located in western Australia, where the main grape grown are Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc and Chardonnay.
- Tasmania: is the most southerly wine region with cooler climate and a wine production focused mainly in Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc.
New Zealand wine is produced in ten major wine regions, north to south are as follow: Northland, Auckland, Waikato-Bay of Plenty, Gisborne, Hawke’s Bay, Wellington, Nelson, Marlborough, Canterbury-Waipara, Central Otago. The main and most famous regions being:
- Auckland: produces mainly red wines from Syrah, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and whites from Chardonnay.
- Gisborne: recognized for the production of quality Chardonnay and Gewürztraminer.
- Wellington-Wairarapa: produces mainly wines from the Pinot Noir grape.
- Martinborough: with its cool climate and long Autumns provides perfect conditions for the production of Pinot Noir, Riesling, Syrah and Pinot Gris.
- Marlborough: very well known for its Sauvignon Blancs.
- Central Otago: is the most southern wine producing region in the world and its recognized for the production of Pinot Noir.
Argentina’s most important wine regions are located around the provinces of Mendoza, San Juan and La Rioja. The major wine regions are found along the foothills of the Andes Mountains which provide a rain-shadow effect like the Vosges Mountains in Germany and Alsace with a continental climate, but the most feared by the wine growers are the icy winds of the Zonda.
The main wine regions of Argentina are as follow:
- Mendoza: the most known and prized regions of Mendoza are Maipu, Lujan de Cuyo, the Uco Valley and Tupungato mostly planted with Malbec, cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo.
- San Juan & La Rioja: the main producing zones are Calingasta, Ullum and Zonda were is mostly produced Syrah and Douce Noir (Bonarda).
- North-West: the main wine regions here are the Catamarca, Jujuy and Salta. A sub-region of Salta is Cafayate, where the production of Torrentes Riojano has gained worldwide attention.
- Patagonia: here is where the majority of sparkling wine production takes place from the Pinot Noir grape, the most prestigious wine area is the Rio Negro Valley.
The Chilean climate has been described as being something between the Californian and French one and it is influnced by the icy winds of the Zonda and the Humboldt Current coming from Antartica.
The grapes mostly grown are Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carmenere as European Vitis vinifera vines were brought by Spanish but mainly influenced by the French especially from Bordeaux.
The main wine producing areas of Chile are as follow:
- Atacama: known primarily for the Pisco production, the two main wine producing areas here are Copiaco and Huasco.
- Aconcagua: famous internationally for its red wines mainly Bordeaux blends.
- Central Valley: is home to the Alto and Central Maipo Valley famous for Cabernet Sauvignon while the Pacific Maipo produces fine Sauvignon Blanc. The Cachapoal Valley and Colchagua Valley are recognized for the production of Great Cabernet Sauvignon, Carmenere and Malbec.
- Southern Chile: here mainly jug wine is produced from the Itata Valley and the Bio Bio Valley is getting recognized for its crisp and aromatic wines.
Canada can be divided into two main areas, the Niagara Peninsula (Ontario) and Okanagan (famous for icewine ), and the Similkameen in British Columbia (main production area). The main Vitis vinifera varieties grown in Canada are Chardonnay, Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Riesling.
For much of the 20th century, the South African wine industry received minimal international attention. The major wine regions of South Africa are:
- Costantia: located on the Cape Peninsula with Atlantic influence and production mainly centered on Sauvignon Blanc.
- Stellenbosch: surrounded by Mountains and influenced by the False Bay that tempers the climate, the main grape varieties grown in the area are Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Shiraz, Pinotage and for white wines Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Chenin Blanc.
Mexican wine began when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century, the major wine producing areas of Mexico are Baja California, La Laguna and Durango, but as we know Mexico is more famous for the production of Tequila, Mezcal andBeer.